Engineering DNA vaccines against infectious diseases

By 4 November 2020November 6th, 2020IPF

Engineering vaccine-based therapeutics for infectious diseases is highly challenging, as trial formulations are often found to be nonspecific, ineffective, thermally or hydrolytically unstable, and/or toxic. Vaccines have greatly improved the therapeutic landscape for treating infectious diseases and have significantly reduced the threat by therapeutic and preventative approaches. Furthermore, the advent of recombinant technologies has greatly facilitated growth within the vaccine realm by mitigating risks such as virulence reversion despite making the production processes more cumbersome. In addition, seroconversion can also be enhanced by recombinant technology through kinetic and nonkinetic approaches, which are discussed herein. Recombinant technologies have greatly improved both amino acid-based vaccines and DNA-based vaccines. A plateau of interest has been reached between 2001 and 2010 for the scientific community with regard to DNA vaccine endeavors. The decrease in interest may likely be attributed to difficulties in improving immunogenic properties associated with DNA vaccines, although there has been research demonstrating improvement and optimization to this end. Despite improvement, to the extent of our knowledge, there are currently no regulatory body-approved DNA vaccines for human use (four vaccines approved for animal use). This article discusses engineering DNA vaccines against infectious diseases while discussing advantages and disadvantages of each, with an emphasis on applications of these DNA vaccines.