Background/Aim: Idiopathic pulmonary ibrosis (PF) is a fatal disorder of unknown aetiology with limited treatment options. Chitosan has antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumour, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of chitosan administration on bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF in rats. Materials and Methods: A PF rat model was established by endotracheal instillation of 5 mg/kg BLM; then, chitosan was administered in drinking water for 3 weeks. Histology, cell counts, and cytokine responses in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and weight measurements (body and lung) were analyzed to assess its therapeutic effects. Results: Chitosan administration tended to reduce transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels in BALF, and histopathological examination confirmed that chitosan attenuated the degree of inflammation and fibrosis in the lung. Conclusion: This study revealed that oral chitosan exhibits potential antifibrotic effects, as measured by decreased proinflammatory cytokine levels and histological evaluation, in a BLM-induced PF rat model.